What Kid Readers Want

Scholastic published a new report this month focusing on the reading habits of children and their families. This is the fifth edition of the report, which included over 2,500 children and their parents. It’s one of the more fascinating things I’ve read lately, both for the points it raises that were surprising, and the fond memories I have of childhood reading.

Lisa Guernsey at the New America Foundation has a great rundown of the survey itself and of some of the more interesting findings:

The results are packed with interesting nuggets for parents and educators alike. They show a decline in “reading for fun” at home among some age groups…while they also show the importance of school to low-income children as a place for reading. A new section of the report provides insight into reading habits among parents of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. And many of the children’s responses throughout the report point to the power of allowing children to choose what to read.

Scholastic has published a few great graphics on the findings of the report, including what kids are looking for in books (52%…say the person who does the best job of picking out books to read for fun is ‘Me.'”) and how tastes change by age. The report includes finding on the frequency of parents reading to children, a measure that has become increasingly discussed with the recent American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for children to be read to from birth. While parents recognized the importance of reading aloud to children who were learning to read (though they often were not able to do this as much as they would like), a particularly fascinating finding was about reading to children after they are able to read on their own. From the NIEER online newsletter, which I co-write:

The study found that while more than half of children ages 0 to 5 were read to between 5-7 days each week, about one-third of children age 6-8 were read to, and only 17 percent of children ages 9 to 11 had this experience. Eighty-three percent of children ages 6-17 reported they “enjoy(ed) being read aloud to at home,” saying it was a special and fun experience with parents. Additionally, according to a piece in The New York Times, “…literacy experts say the real value of reading to children is helping to develop background knowledge in all kinds of topics as well as exposure to sophisticated language.”

Kids want to be read to. Even kids who may claim to be “too old” or “too cool” for Mom or Dad to sit down with a book may occasionally like the experience! And here’s why:

ReadAloud_info-2

I have such wonderful memories of being read to. I agree with that 78% who say it creates a special time with parents, but as a kid myself, I go to be on the flipside. My “little brother” (read: now in his second year of teaching high school) wasn’t the strongest reader as a kid, and it kept him from being the kind of voracious reader I was. As I was tearing through the Harry Potter books, he wasn’t sure he wanted to dive into them. So I read them to him, out loud. From across the bedroom we shared. In the backseat of the car in 20 minute chunks as my mom drove out to my older brother’s high school with us in tow. For 15 minutes sitting out adult swim at the pool. When the fourth book came out, I read it for the first time while reading it to him. When the fifth book came out, he felt up to taking it on by himself, and while that was great (except for fighting over our one copy!), there was a piece of the experience now gone for me. Whether it was just the pride of being the helpful big sister or really getting to share something I loved, I treasured those moments. I’m thinking of so many parent friends who post Facebook updates of their excitement to start reading Lord of the Rings to their kids – kids who wouldn’t be ready to take on those tomes yet, but get to experience this wonderful stories complete with a reader who will do different voices, share that experience, and hopefully remember it fondly when they pick them up again on their own years later.

You might not have time to read the whole report, but do try to find the time to grab your favorite childhood book – or help a young reader find a new favorite! – and settle in with the child in your life for some quality time.

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25 years later, early childhood educators still get a raw deal

This week, the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment released its report Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages: The Childhood Workforce 25 Years after the National Child Care Staffing Study with a live event at the New America Foundation. In 1989, the National Child Care Staffing Study brought attention to the high turnover rates and poverty-level salaries for early childhood education teachers. The new report revisits the topic of teacher wages and working conditions in light of the dramatic increase in attention to, and investment in, early childhood education in the last 25 years. Despite this focus at the local, state, and federal government levels, as well as in private industry and philanthropy, early childhood education teachers are still struggling to get by….Low salaries have real, negative impact on early childhood professionals. In 2012, almost half of childcare workers used one of four public income support programs to support their own families, compared to a quarter of the U.S. workforce. The utilization of these programs by early childhood workers (the Earned Income Tax Credit; Medicaid and Children’s Health Insurance Program; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program; and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) totals $2.4 billion per year

via Revisiting early childhood teachers, 25 years later | Preschool Matters… Today!.

Those are my thoughts on a new blog with NIEER. As a researcher talking about a new report, my job is to focus on the data and the facts. But a large part of me can’t get over the gut response of “OMG.” It’s not news that early childhood education is a low-paying field, but to see the realities of teachers lives, and what they give up for pursuing meaningful work with big impacts, is heartbreaking. The original staffing study was published just as my parents were exploring early childhood education options for me. I can’t stomach idea that my beloved teachers from that part-day, church-based programs were statistically likely to be in a rough economic place; I certainly can’t stomach the fact that friends going into the field 25 years later are facing the same barrier.

The PATH to nowhere

This started as a series of tweets and clearly got out of hand. I don’t even ride the JSQ-33rd line impacted the last three days (except weekends, when there IS no other option!). Written via smartphone on my NJT connection so please excuse formatting.

UPDATED at 9:44am to fix some formatting and add links.

PATH’s job after the fire is to assess damage & recovery time, communicate that to us, & then do it. If line needs to be shut down for repairs, that’s tough. But people need notice. If they knew night before, they can rearrange child care, try to work from home, maybe carpool, AT LEAST know to leave early for an alternate route. Last minute changes have costs in our time and money, and can be serious issues for people trying to get kids to school or get to their jobs. Last minute decisions that go out by TWITTER and not the email and text alerts regular riders rely on and sign up for creates a situation where we have no faith in this system: they are not safe, clean, or reliable, and they let us fend for ourselves. It’s not just PATH failing at communications. Riders on Twitter said they’ve had trouble boarding both NJTransit buses and trains, even though NJTranist is supposed to be cross honoring on all modes. My favorite is the rider who showed a customer service agent yet NJT tweet on cross honoring and was told they didn’t know NJT had a twitter and it might not be official. This is what thousands of commuters in the NY metro area have to deal with.

And, of course, a PATH fare increase next week.

Riders aren’t blaming PATH for the tunnel fire (but we do need more info on what happened and what’s being done to prevent it again!). But when a fire can cripple transit and no real solutions or information are offered, this is a major failure to keep our area working.

Pre-K in President Obama’s Budget Proposal

Here it is, the moment you’ve all been waiting for: pre-K in President Obama’s FY14 budget! The budget was released on Wednesday with quite a bit of accompanying paperwork, but the basic takeaway is that the President proposed $75 billion over 10 years for the Education Department to match state efforts to expand access to high quality preschool. The program would be first focused on 4-year-olds below 200% of the federal poverty level (about $46,100 for a family of 4), though states would be incentivized to expand to middle-income families once these children were served. The plan would be funded through an increase in the tobacco tax – from $1.01 per pack to $1.95. I’ve written on the details of this plan along with our director at Preschool Matters, the blog of the National Institute for Early Education Research.

There’s been a lot of coverage of this proposal from several major media outlets, particularly as details of the tobacco tax emerged. If you’re looking for more information, I recommend several writers who know their early ed well. Fellow policy wonks at the New America Foundation explored early learning in this budget as well as key questions still out there on education in the budget more holistically. Joy Resmovits at the Huffington Post was one of the first journalist to predict early education in the State of the Union, so she’s followed this from the start. Check out her coverage on the response from the tobacco industry as well as why the plan won’t appeal to all states universally. Dylan Scott at Governing places this proposal in political context.

My thoughts – and only my thoughts! – on this proposal is that a tobacco tax is going to be a fight, and there are legitimate concerns about how to develop sustainable funding from a tax meant to drive down consumption. That being said, I’m eager to see how this conversations plays out at the national level. The President has elevated pre-K as a national priority, and this is a big moment in the field. By proposing the plan as a consumption tax and making it deficit neutral, I’m cautiously optimistic that the debate can center on the merits of the proposal and less on shouting over spending. Stay tuned!

UPDATE: The Washington Post’s Wonkblog wrote on the sustainability question last week, bringing up some important concerns. Economist Tim Bartik has a great piece up in response explaining that the budget numbers the federal government releases are constrained by certain rules, but looking at the long-term savings of high quality pre-K makes the case that a tobacco tax for pre-K would be sustainable, and wroth it.

WSJ Falls Behind on Head Start Coverage

Obama in Pre-K Classroom
“President Barack Obama visits a pre-kindergarten classroom at the College Heights Early Childhood Learning Center in Decatur, Ga., Feb. 14, 2013. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)” via WhiteHouse.gov

Since President Obama’s State of the Union speech declaring his goal of preschool for all young learners, there’s been no shortage of misinformed, factual inaccurate, and/or just downright dishonest hackery. I won’t enumerate those pieces for you, since most are neither worth the time nor the page clicks, but the Wall Street Journal’s February 25th Head Start for All is particularly notable both in its scope of misinformation and its prominence among media coverage (let’s not get me started on the condescending tone used to diminish one of the biggest education reform proposals in recent memory). From the very start, its frames pre-K as some sort of Bizarro World policy suggestion: “Government failure is hardly new, though President Obama has given it a characteristic new twist: A program’s proven inability to do the things it is supposed to do is now an argument for expanding it.”

Luckily, I don’t have to deconstruct this piece, because several more eloquent and even-tempered experts in the field have already offered their expertise. Here for your edification is a quick look at the responses offered. All are worth reading in their entirety to bring you up to speed on the realities of this debate.

Larry Schweinhart, President of the HighScope Education Research Foundation, wrote a letter to the paper (which is currently being shared at the blog of the National Institute for Early Education Research) challenging their conclusions on the Perry Preschool Program study, which he directed. While noting that the Perry and Abcedarian studies are not the only studies support the effectiveness of pre-K, Schweinhart notes Perry is significantly more cost-effective than the editorial suggested:

“…[T]he Perry Preschool cost per child was well below the $16,000 per child per year or more you said it cost. In current dollars, it cost $11,107 per child per year, about the same as the cost per K-12 student in the U.S. The Perry Preschool program is not that hard to replicate—and have its return on investment widely realized. We simply need to insist on reasonable program standards – qualified teachers using a proven curriculum, partnership with parents, and regular evaluation…”

Since SOTU, Tim Bartik, a senior economist at the Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, has used his blog to respond to misinformation in the media and make clear what research really does indicate on pre-K. Bartik has worked for years on the economics of pre-K and is one of the researchers on the well-regarded Tulsa Pre-K Program study.  Bartik addressed a number of issues with the WSJ editorial, including even the fact that the headline’s very suggestion – that the President is seeking to expand Head Start to all children – is rejected on face by just reading the White House fact sheet. Bartik expresses a similar concern to Schweinhart that the evidence of pre-K success does not come from simply a few “boutique” programs, but rather a more robust field of research that has been ignored in the WSJ editorial. The entire blog is a truly wonderful and thorough deconstruction of a truly flawed editorial. Bartik also followed up a few days later with a response specifically to the WSJ’s editorial’s contention that a study of pre-K in Georgia (by Maria Donovan Fitzpatrick at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research) was misinterpreted and presented as “unduly pessimistic.” His blog sets the record straight on what’s become an often-cited study as Georgia is closely examined in this policy debate, but also serves as a great primer in understanding the difficulty and nuance of studying the effects of pre-K in a large population.

Lisa Guernsey, director of the Early Education Initiative at the New America Foundation, also responded to the misrepresentations of the WSJ piece in a letter that was printed by the paper. Guernsey also holds that the President’s proposal was misrepresented by labeling it an expansion of Head Start, noting that the plan calls for the federal government to empower and support state efforts on pre-K at a time when “[a]round the country, good preschools want to expand and improve.” Guernsey built on these points in a blog post, calling for a substantive debate on this policy proposal and sounding the sobering alarm that:

“If we continue at our current rate of progress, “it will take more than three decades to reach the point where even 50 percent of young children are reading proficiently at the end of third grade,” according to the 2012 Child Well-Being Index published by the Foundation for Child Development….Most developed countries are already well-ahead of the United States in making public investments in early care and education. We cannot afford to keep stalling.”

The National Institute for Early Education Research (where I am employed full-time) released a policy report specifically meant to tackle misunderstandings and misinformation in ongoing debates around the President’s proposal. Pre-K has a rich research base, with long-term studies of effectiveness going back almost half a century as well as more recent studies of the effects of state-funded pre-K programs. This report is not a response to any one media report but rather seeks to frame the pre-K debate in solid research. Steve Barnett, NIEER Director, explains:

“Both science and public policy are best advanced based on impartial analysis of all the available evidence. No single study stands on its own, much less provides the definitive answers to policy questions on its own. This requires that scientists and policymakers consider all the evidence rather than simply select a few studies that fit their preconceived notions. The Obama administration’s new universal pre-K proposal first announced in the State of the Union address comports conclusions drawn from a full review of the evidence, just as one would hope.

Critics of the pre-K proposal in the ensuing debate have not followed the same approach. Their attacks on the President’s proposal have been based on a few selected studies considered in isolation and when convenient, misinterpreted.”

A federal plan to expand pre-K raises a lot of important questions on what, how, who, and at what cost. But it will be impossible to have a productive conversation about education young learners for the future without setting the facts straight.

Visualizing Data: Experiment I

EDIT: That clearly didn’t work. I now remember someone warning me that the Java or something causes a problem sometimes with embedding. Off to learn more.

I’m playing around with a few new tools to visual share data. I’m already a fan of Google’s Motion Charts, in large part thanks to Hans Rosling and his awesome graphics. But since so much of my day-job work revolves around states, how best to represent that data?

Today I’m finally getting around to trying out Tableau, who’s software is much-heralded among policy friends. I’m using their public version, so all my projects will get saved online. Right now, I’m just using this blog as a way to see how these maps look shared somewhere.

I’d been puzzling over Tableau for a bit, but their video tutorials were super helpful and now I’m excited to explore more of their features and find our what best works for our organization.

easy maps

Next up, trying out Google Fusion’s map functions, recommended by a friend at a non-profit.